**
S**_{s} is the specific gravity of
sediment, d_{50} the mean sediment size, R the hydraulic radius, S_{o} the water
surface slope, V the mean flow velocity, C_{v} the volumetric concentration and g
the gravity acceleration.

Table 1: Sediment Transport Assessment

Equation |
Discrepancy Ratio (0.5 - 2.0) |

Present Study |
All Data |

No. of data |
Percentage |
No. of data |
Percentage |

Einstein |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |

Einstein-Brown |
0 |
0 |
1 |
0.29 |

Meyer-Peter-Muller |
0 |
0 |
2 |
0.58 |

Shileds |
0 |
0 |
2 |
0.58 |

Yang |
22 |
18.03 |
82 |
23.70 |

Engelund & Hansen |
30 |
24.59 |
76 |
21.97 |

Ackers & White |
7 |
5.74 |
44 |
12.72 |

Graf |
10 |
8.20 |
46 |
13.41 |

**
Total** |
**
122** |
**
100** |
**
346** |
**
100** |

Postgraduate Research that involve in the Study are as follows:

Ariffin, J. (2004). *Developmant of Sediment Transport Models
for Selected Rivers in Malaysia Using Regression Analysis and
Artificial Neural Network*, PhD. Thesis, Penang : Universiti
Sains Malaysia.

Sinnakaudan, S. (2003). *Sediment Transport Modeling and Flood
Risk Mapping in Geographic Information System (GIS)*. PhD.
Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Abdul Ghaffar, A. B. (2003). *Factors Affecting Values of
Manning's Flow Resistance Coefficient*. MSc. Thesis, Penang :
Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Darus, A. (2002). *
Conservation and Restoration of Urban Rivers: Case Studies of
Raia River and Pari River*.
MSc. Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ibrahim, N. A. (2002).
*
Evaluation and Development of Sediment Transport Equations for
Kinta River Basins, Kulim River and Kerayong River*.
MSc. Tesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Attempts were also made to derive
new equations for computing Manning *n* for application to
the moderate-size and sand-bed streams in Malaysia based on 168
data collected from Kinta, Langat and Kulim Rivers. The
resulting equations (Ab. Ghani et. al 2007, Chang 2006, Soong
2009) have an error less than 10% in predicting flow discharge
for all the measured data. Both equations have a regression
coefficient *R*^{2} = 0.86:

**
References: **

Ab. Ghani, A.,** **Zakaria, N.A.,
Chang, C.K., Ariffin, J., Abu Hasan, Z. & Abdul Ghaffar, A.B.
(2007). Revised Equations for Manning's Coefficient for Sand-Bed
Rivers,** ***International Journal of River Basin
Management*, IAHR, Vol. 5, No.4,
pp. 329-346. ISSN 1571-5124

Chang, C.K. (2006). Sediment
Transport in Kulim River, Kedah. *
MSc. Thesis*. Penang:
Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Soong,
D. T. (2009).
http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/equations.shtml

Manning *n* against *yo*/*d*_{50}

Manning *n* against *R*/*d*_{50}