TM Report I thumbnail       TM Report II thumbnail       TM Report III thumbnail       TM Report IV thumbnail       TM Report V thumbnail



Prof Dr. Nor Azazi Zakaria <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

Prof. Dr. Aminuddin Ab. Ghani <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

Zorkeflee Abu Hasan

Mohd Fazly Yusof <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

Khairul Rahmah Ayub <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

Leow Cheng Siang <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

Chang Chun Kiat <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>


Project Reports:

The project consists of five volumes as stated below:   

Volume I: Executive Summary

Volume II: Introduction & Data Collection

Volume III: Hydrological & Hydraulic Analyses

Volume IV: Water Quality Assessment

Volume V: Stormwater Master Plan


Executive Summary: 

The Stormwater Management and Drainage Master Plan Study for the Town of Tanah Merah, Kelantan, is a master plan study initiated by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) Malaysia.  The master plan aims to address stormwater related issues and problems in Tanah Merah town area. This study also covers the immediate surrounding areas set to undergo land use transformation from agriculture to commercial and industrial area as planned in the District’s Local Plan and State’s Structure Plan.

The objective of the study is as follows:


Study Area and Problem Statement:

Tanah Merah town is located in District of Tanah Merah with a total catchment of 64 km square. It is the second largest town in State of Kelantan with rapid growth of development. The town is situated on the west bank of Kelantan River with the railway line run across the middle of the town.

Parts of the town area especially at the north and east where vast of the areas have been developed for the housing project was the ex-paddy field with a lowland topography. With the lack of the proper drainage system connecting the affected area and insufficient in density, these areas have been flooded during the heavy rainstorm. The situation has been even worst during the monsoon where the overflow from the Sungai Kelantan will backflow into the lowland areas through the existing Sungai Kepat, Sungai Tualang Bah, Sungai Maka and Sungai Alor Pechong which are lying at the side of Bandar Tanah Merah.

Future development is also expected increase imperviousness of the catchment. A part from disturbing hydrology, under designed drainage will also causes flash flood. Worse still, urbanization brings even more pollution issue to the area, which already has poor water quality due to lack of control.

Therefore, REDAC (Through USAINS Holdings Sdn Bhd, Corporate wing of Universiti Sains Malaysia) was appointed by DID to produce a drainage and stormwater management master plan for the area of town Tanah Merah to address these stormwater issues.


Town thumbnail


Image1 thumbnail       Image2 thumbnail
Image3 thumbnail   Image4 thumbnail
Condition of Sungai Maka during flooding (right) and normal condition (left)


Image5 thumbnailFlooding at Sungai Kepat cutting off accessibility


Scope of Works:

In order to produce a comprehensive drainage master plan, the team had performed a series of research works, which include:


Data Collection:

The procedure of work was made up of 3 general phases, data collection, analyses, as well as design and planning. The study kicked off with data collection process to gather all relevant information and data required for analyses. Data Collection can be divided into desk work and field works. Desk work includes gathering of all published data including rainfall and stream flow records, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data, land use maps, satellite images, and soil data.  

Related reports and studies are also reviewed, including the existing municipal Local Plans, flood reports, and as built drawings. 

The study team carried out a series of field works to complement data collection. These field works provided additional data to those collected through desk work. These field works includes:


Image6Geotechnical Investigation Work


Image7 thumbnailWater Quality Monitoring and Sampling


Image8 thumbnailExisting Stormwater Planning from Local Plan


Stormwater Analyses:

Stormwater analyses were carried out to quantitatively identify the severity of stormwater related issues in Tanah Merah. Stormwater analyses include:

An integrated hydrological and hydraulic model was applied to perform analyses on Tanah Merah. InfoWorks CS was used to establish the hydrological and hydraulic model. After calibration process against the December 2007 flood, the model was used to simulate various conditions including future catchment land use, various design storms and boundary conditions.

The simulations confirmed that Tanah Merah is heavily affected by water levels and flood from Sungai Kelantan. Flood water travel up Sungai Kepat and Sungai Maka and inundate many areas (many of which are inhabited) within the town. The existing urban drain network is poorly managed, under-designed and would definitely fail to cope with future runoff increase.

Image9 The apparent effect of urbanization


Image15(a) Sungai Maka Longitudinal water profile for 10 year ARI event without Sungai Kelantan tailwater


Image16 (b) Sungai Maka Longitudinal water profile for 10 year ARI event coinciding with Sungai Kelantan 5 year ARI water level.

Apparent effect of Sungai Kelantan influence


Image10 Flood extent for 10 year ARI catchment coincide with 50 year ARI Sungai Kelantan event


Water Quality assessment was carried out through site and laboratory testing to determine chemical parameters of water in Tanah Merah. From 25 sampling sites, sample water was tested for 11 water quality parameters from the simplest pH measurement to Total Coliform determination. It was found that water quality in Tanah Merah is generally poor with high ammoniacal nitrogen, bio-chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease as well as total coliform count due to the lack of proper sewage treatment system in the town.

Image11 thumbnail Water quality indicator for stream/ river sampling


Image12 thumbnail Water quality indicator for point-source pollution


Stormwater Master Plan:

After identifying issues and considering design constraints, the study team proposed a stormwater management master plan consisting of two parts namely the structural stormwater master plan and non-structural stormwater management plan. Both parts will play equally important role to manage stormwater in Tanah Merah at long term sustainably.

Structural Master Plan

The proposed structural master plan consisted of all physical modification and upgrades deemed necessary to improve stormwater management in Tanah Merah by the study team. The structural upgrades are designed based on two important design criteria, which is to provide sufficient flood protection and to provide runoff control in terms of water quantity and quality. Among the promoted upgrade includes:

Image13 thumbnail
Proposed Structural Stormwater Master Plan for Tanah Merah


Image14 thumbnail Typical cross section design with confined floodplain for Sungai Kepat


Non-structural Stormwater Management Plan

Non-structural stormwater management plan was tailored to complement the structural master plan to enhance stormwater management in Tanah Merah. This plan consists of several components to provide management suggestions to the local authorities in stormwater management. Non-structural measures included were: