Evaluation and Development of Sediment Transport Equations for Kinta River Basins, Kulim River and Kerayong River


Sediment transport in rivers involves complex interaction between numerous inter-related variables. Empirical methods emphasize only a certain number of parameters that are considered to be more relevant by their developers. In the past, a large number of sediment transport equations were developed using data derived from laboratory experiments with shallow flows.

In this study, four commonly used bed load equations namely Einstein, Einstein-Brown, Meyer-Peter-Muller and Shields and four total bed-material load equations, Ackers-White, Engelund-Hansen, Graf and Yang were used to evaluate the sediment transport rates for Malaysian rivers.  A total of 108 sets of data were collected from the Pari, Kinta and Raia Rivers in Ipoh, Perak, the Kerayong River in Kuala Lumpur and Kulim River in Kulim, Kedah. These data were analysed and evaluated using the above- mentioned eight equations. Comparison of discrepancy ratios i.e. the ratio of computed transport rate over measured values, were done and the results showed that the Ackers-White equation yielded the highest evaluation with 76% followed by the Yang, Graf and Engelund-Hansen equation at 50%, 48% and 46% respectively. 

Subsequently, four sediment transport equations for Malaysian rivers, namely equations 6.13b, 6.14a, 6.16f and 6.17f were developed using a computer software, Statistical Products and Services Solutions (SPSS). The same set of data were then used for evaluation of the equations developed. The result shows highest percentage of discrepancy ratio is obtained for Raia River at 71%, 67% and 76% using equations 6.13b, 6.14a and 6.17f respectively. For equation 6.16f, the Pari River yielded the highest at 57%.

Overall, the Raia River showed outstanding results using the equations developed. This augurs well for further research on sediment transport in Malaysian rivers.