Project Title: Flood Risk Mapping For Rivers in Malaysia Incorporating Sediment Transport in River Channel: Case Study of Pari River, Ipoh, Perak

Funder: Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment

(IRPA 09-02-05-1030 EA 001)


Duration: April 2002 to September 2005





The objectives of the study are: 


  • To identify areas of flood inundation in Sungai Pari Catchment Area

  • To provide better understandings on depth-of-flood details, spatial variation in flood risk mapping and sediment transport based on hydrological, hydraulic and socio-economic factors for Sungai Pari Catchment Area

  • To produce digital flood risk maps for Sungai Pari Catchment Area that can be updated easily


Severe flooding has occurred in recent years at several parts of Malaysia, both as localized flash floods and as basin-wide floods on major river systems. Some of the badly affected areas are situated at the river basins in Penang (Juru River Basin), Pahang (Pahang River Basin), Terengganu (Setiu River Basin) and Perak (Kinta River Basin). By their nature, floods are generated by the random coincidence of several meteorological factors but man's use of the river catchment also has an impact upon the severity and consequences of the events.


There is no particular attempt yet in Malaysia to provide digital flood risk maps taking into account of sediment movement along the river channel.  Ab. Ghani et al. (1998) attempts to quantify the effects of sediment movement and corresponding cross-sectional changes in producing the flood levels. Successful applications of several sediment transport models such as HEC-6 and FLUVIAL-12 (Ab. Ghani et al., 1998) indicate the possibility of extending the obtained results in mapping the flood prone areas by incorporating sediment transport bearing in mind the physical aspects of river ability to change its boundary (Ab Ghani et al., 2000).


A sediment transport equation applicable for rivers in Malaysia (Sinnakaudan et al., 2006) was developed based on sediment data collection carried out from 1994 until 2002 (Chang et al., 2005).  It was later embedded in a modified version of HEC-6 model and named SEDFlood model (Sinnakaudan et al., 2002; 2003).  A user-friendly, menu-driven GUI for 2D and 3D digital floodplain delineation was developed based on ArcView GIS and SEDFlood tight coupling procedure.  Flood risk maps for the present and future land use can be produced using the SEDFlood model GUI (Sinnakaudan et al., 2004).


Selected Publications:

  • Ab. Ghani, A., Abu Hasan, Z., Abdullah, R. and Zakaria, N.A. (1998). Scour And Deposition In Pari River After Completion Of Flood Mitigation Project. Proc. International Conf. On Hydrology and Water Resources of Humid Tropic, USM, Ipoh, Malaysia, pp.112-127, 24-26 November.

  • Ab. Ghani, A., Sinnakaudan, S. K., Ahmad, M.S.S., Zakaria, N.A., Abdullah, R. & Abustan, I. (2000). Issues and Practices in Flood Risk Mapping, National Civil Engineering Conference, USM, pp. W10-1:W10-13, 24 26 January.

  • Sinnakaudan, S., Ab. Ghani, A., Chang, C.K., S. Ahmad., M. S & Zakaria, N, A. (2002). Integrated Triangular Irregular Network (ITIN) Model for Flood Risk Analysis. Case Study: Pari River, Ipoh, Malaysia. 13th Asia-Pacific Division Congress of IAHR, Singapore, Vol. 2., pp. 656-660, August 6-8.  ISBN: 9812380906 <download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S., Ab. Ghani, A., Chang, C.K.,  & Zakaria, N, A. (2002). Flood Inundation Analysis Using HEC-6 and ArcView GIS 3.2a. 5th International Conference On Hydro - Science & Engineering, Warsaw University Of Technology, September 18 21. <download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S., Ab Ghani, A., S. Ahmad, M. S., & Zakaria, N, A. (2003). Flood Risk Mapping for Pari River Incorporating Sediment Transport. Journal of Environmental Modeling and Software, Elsevier Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 119-130 <download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S., Ab Ghani, A., S. Ahmad, M. S., & Zakaria, N, A. (2004). Sediment transport modeling and flood risk mapping in Geographic Information System (GIS).   4th Annual Seminar of National Science Fellowship 2004, 20th - 22nd December, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 638-645 <download>

  • Chang, C. K., Ab. Ghani, A., Zakaria, N. A., Abu Hasan, Z. & Abdullah, R. (2005). Sediment Transport Equation Assessment for Selected Rivers in Malaysia, International Journal of River Basin Management, IAHR, Vol. 3, No.3, pp. 203-208.  ISSN 1571-5124 <download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S. K., Ab. Ghani, A., Ahmad, M. S. S., & Zakaria, N.A.(2006). Multiple Linear Regression Model for Total Bed Material Load Prediction, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 132, No. 5, May, pp. 521-528.  ISSN 0733-9429 <download>




SedFlood Model

SedFlood GUI


3D Flood Risk Map
(Present landuse)


3D Flood Risk Map
(Year 2020 landuse)