Project Title: The Development of HEC-Series Programme To Predict Sediment Movement for Rivers in Malaysia

Funder: Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment

(IRPA 08-02-05-6006)


Duration: April 1997 to March 2001





The objectives of the study are: 


  • To evaluate the applicability of HEC-6 programme to predict sediment transport rates and flood levels for rivers in Malaysia

  • To appraise the existing sediment transport equations

  • To develop sediment transport equations for rivers in Malaysia

  • To develop flood risk map (Pari River, Ipoh)



Four rivers were selected as study sites namely Pari River (Ipoh), Kerayong River (Kuala Lumpur), Kulim River (Kulim) and Malacca River (Mallaca City).  Total bed material loads were collected from these rivers.  The appraisals of the existing sediment transport equations show that Yang, Ackers & White and Graf equations are suitable for the prediction of sediment transports in these rivers.  A number of equations were also developed for the prediction of sediment transport rates using the collected sediment transport data especially for low to medium flows.  Further data collection for high flows are being carried out.


During the study period, a 50-year flood occurred at Pari River on the 19th November 1997 causing structural damages to the rigid bank walls on both sides of the river especially at bends.  Subsequently, the flood hydrograph was used to calibrate the HEC-6 model to predict the recorded flood water levels.  A good agreement was found between the predicted and observed water levels using Yang equation.  Another model namely, FLUVIAL-12 was also used to predict the erosion and deposition trends during the flood.  The calibration results using Yang and Graf equations show that the FLUVIAL-12 model could well  predict the observed erosion and deposition patterns along the river including at the bends.  The results from the calibration of HEC-6 and FLUVIAL-12 models were then used for the rehabilitation work of  Pari River. 

A flood risk map was also developed for Pari River to represent the effect of the flood event by developing an ArcView GIS extension namely AVHEC-6.AVX integrating the HEC-6 model within GIS environment.  The extension has  the capability of analyzing the computed water surface profiles generated from HEC-6 model and producing a related flood map for Pari River in the ArcView GIS

The study was conducted by ten postgraduate students (3 PhD, 7 MSc) and 20 papers have been presented at national and international conferences.  Three articles have been published in international journals:

  • Chang, C. K., Ab. Ghani, A., Zakaria, N. A., Abu Hasan, Z. & Abdullah, R. (2005). Sediment Transport Equation Assessment for Selected Rivers in Malaysia, International Journal of River Basin Management, IAHR, Vol. 3, No.3, pp. 203-208. ISSN 1571-5124 <Download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S. K., Ab. Ghani, A., Ahmad, M. S. S., & Zakaria, N.A.(2006). Multiple Linear Regression Model for Total Bed Material Load Prediction, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 132, No. 5, May, pp. 521-528. ISSN 0733-9429  <Download>

  • Sinnakaudan, S., Ab Ghani, A., S. Ahmad, M. S., & Zakaria, N, A. (2003). Flood Risk Mapping for Pari River Incorporating Sediment Transport. Journal of Environmental Modeling and Software, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 119-130. ISSN 1364-8152 <Download>




1997 Flood


Present condition of

Pari River


River Profile


Sand Dredging and

Silibin Bridge


Sand Dredging at the Confluence of Kinta River


SedFlood Model

SedFlood GUI


3D Flood Risk Map