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This project report consists of three Volumes and a guideline as stated below :

Volume I: Main Report (ISBN : 983-3067-00-X)

Volume II: Sediment Transport Equation Assessment (ISBN : 983-3067-01-8)

Volume III: Sediment Size Distribution Curve (ISBN : 983-3067-02-6)

Guideline: River Sediment Data Collection and Analysis (ISBN : 983-3067-03-4)


The principal objectives of the Study include the following:

  • Establishment of a sediment transport database for alluvial rivers within a range of low and high flows for a different landuse and development.
  • Establishment of relationship between flows and sediment loads for the assessment of the stability of river channel due to erosion and deposition for different type of catchment developments. 
  • Establishment of relationship between flows and sediment loads for design and evaluation of new and existing flood mitigation projects.


The Study sites consist of four rivers which are situated at Kinta River Catchment, namely Kinta River, Pari River, Raia River and Kampar River.

The sites for this Study were chosen based on the following criteria:

  •  Natural reach: Undeveloped upper or middle reach (< 30 %Catchment Development) - Kampar River@ KM34
  •  Natural reach: Developed middle reach (> 30 % Catchment Development) - Raia River @ Kampung Tanjung and Batu Gajah
  •  Modified reach: Developed middle reach (> 30% Catchment Development) - Kinta River@ Ipoh, Pari River @ Buntong and Manjoi


Pic 1       Pic 2       Pic 3
Kampar River@ KM34   Raia River @ Kampung Tanjung   Raia River @ Batu Gajah
SgPariBuntong thumbnail   Pic 4   Pic 6
Pari River @ Buntong   Pari River @ Manjoi   Kinta River@ Ipoh
Figure 1: Study Sites @ Kinta River catchment


Data collections including suspended load, bed load, bed material and flow discharge have been carried out during the Study (Ibrahim 2002, Darus 2002, Abdul Ghaffar 2003, Sinnakaudan 2003). A total of 122 set of data have been obtained for the period from September 2000 until October 2002. The analysis also includes Yahaya (1999) and Ariffin (2002) study for Kerayong River, Kulim River and Langat River catchment (224 sets of data). Table 1 below shows the summary of the sediment transport assessment for the 122 and 346 sets of data. Figure 2 shows the relationship between transport and flow parameter of the total 346 data. Comparison with Graf equation shows that the Malaysian sediment transport data consisting of mainly coarse sand agrees well with the equation. However, for fine sand, the modified Graf equation seems to suit better: 

 Symbol 1



Symbol 5 eq2


Symbol 4 eq1


Ss is the specific gravity of sediment, d50 the mean sediment size, R the hydraulic radius, So the water surface slope, V the mean flow velocity, Cv the volumetric concentration and g the gravity acceleration.  

Table 1: Sediment Transport Assessment

Equation Discrepancy Ratio (0.5 - 2.0)
Present Study All Data
No. of data Percentage No. of data Percentage
Einstein 0 0 0 0
Einstein-Brown 0 0 1 0.29
Meyer-Peter-Muller 0 0 2 0.58
Shileds 0 0 2 0.58
Yang 22 18.03 82 23.70
Engelund & Hansen 30 24.59 76 21.97
Ackers & White 7 5.74 44 12.72
Graf 10 8.20 46 13.41
Total 122 100 346 100


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Figure 2: Relationship between Transport Parameter (Φ) and Flow Parameter (ψ)


Postgraduate Research that involve in the Study are as follows:

Ariffin, J. (2004). Developmant of Sediment Transport Models for Selected Rivers in Malaysia Using Regression Analysis and Artificial Neural Network, PhD. Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Sinnakaudan, S. (2003). Sediment Transport Modeling and Flood Risk Mapping in Geographic Information System (GIS). PhD. Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Abdul Ghaffar, A. B. (2003). Factors Affecting Values of Manning's Flow Resistance Coefficient. MSc. Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Darus, A. (2002). Conservation and Restoration of Urban Rivers: Case Studies of Raia River and Pari River. MSc. Thesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ibrahim, N. A. (2002). Evaluation and Development of Sediment Transport Equations for Kinta River Basins, Kulim River and Kerayong River. MSc. Tesis, Penang : Universiti Sains Malaysia.


Attempts were also made to derive new equations for computing Manning n for application to the moderate-size and sand-bed streams in Malaysia based on 168 data collected from Kinta, Langat and Kulim Rivers.  The resulting equations (Ab. Ghani et. al 2007, Chang 2006, Soong 2009) have an error less than 10% in predicting flow discharge for all the measured data.  Both equations have a regression coefficient R2 = 0.86:  






Ab. Ghani, A., Zakaria, N.A., Chang, C.K., Ariffin, J., Abu Hasan, Z. & Abdul Ghaffar, A.B. (2007). Revised Equations for Manning's Coefficient for Sand-Bed Rivers, International Journal of River Basin Management, IAHR, Vol. 5, No.4, pp. 329-346.  ISSN 1571-5124 

Chang, C.K. (2006). Sediment Transport in Kulim River, Kedah. MSc. Thesis. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia. 

Soong, D. T. (2009). http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/equations.shtml


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Manning n against yo/d50


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 Manning n against R/d50